Producing clothes in Asia
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Textile Market under pressure
With suppliers around the globe and many manufacturing phases, the textile industry is probably the most internationalized. It starts from agriculture to get to industry, employs many unskilled labor in competing territories, and therefore has many environmental and social impacts.
In a context of globalization of trade, the race for the cheapest product often leads to a deterioration in the social and environmental conditions of production (working conditions, wages, toxicity of products for employees and for the final consumer, polluting discharges … ) The responsible company, which manufactures and markets its products in a global quality search, may be forced to follow this trend of lower quality to maintain its market share.
The differents steps to manufacture fabric and clothing
From the fiber, at least 5 steps are necessary for the manufacture of a garment. The cultivation of fiber, spinning, weaving, dyeing, making.
For example, for a garment manufactured mainly with cotton, after harvesting the cotton fibers are sorted, cleaned to remove dirt and then spun. In order to facilitate spinning treatments, preparation agents (lubricants and moistening agents) are used. These agents will then be disposed of and may end up in the wastewater.
From the yarns, fabric will be made which will be glued. The sizing products must be removed in order not to interfere with the finishing process (dyeing, finishing, priming). These so-called auxiliary textile products can be found in the waste water baths and the treatment waters.
The fabric will then be dyed. Dyeing involves the use of a number of chemicals and auxiliary products that are commonly found in discharges. The environmental impacts considered at this stage are discharges from the dye baths; Washing baths and rinsing after dyeing, water cleaning equipment. The textiles can be dyed during any stage of the manufacturing process depending on the presentation of the material (fill, yarn, fabric).
The weaving phase may require synthetic primers, ie all chemical, physical and mechanical treatments, which serve to give the textiles the desired end-use properties (touch, visual effect, waterproofing, non-flammability, etc.). This is the ennobling phase.
The textile is then made, dispensed, used, cleaned, removed or revalorized.
Manufacture different fabric for your clothing brand
– Spinning: The manufacture of a wire requires the husking and cleaning of the raw material (ginning), loosening and parallelization of the fibers (carding, combing) and finally spinning.
The production of a wire is a succession of steps depending on the quality of the desired wire and the type of fibers to be worked but which always comprises at least three phases:
Several filaments are drawn from the filament and gathered into a wick;
The wick is rolled in wire by twisting;
The yarn is wound to be woven.
There are two major spinning processes:
Spinning for long fibers (spinning wool);
Spinning for short fibers (cotton spinning).
For these two processes, cleaned fiber wadding is used, if necessary, which is transformed into a wick, then into a ribbon and then into a wire.
Spinning of continuous fibers or spinning:
For synthetic fibers: a filament is obtained by spinning. The filaments are converted (cut) or cracked to obtain blendable fibers;
For natural fibers: A silkworm is capable of secreting a filament that can measure up to 1500 m. Silk generally does not enter the spinning processes described above. The filaments of the bristles are assembled, and then twisted together, which can then be cut to be mixed with other fibers.
– Weaving: The fabric is obtained by weaving which is the result of the interlacing, in the same plane, of yarns disposed in the warp direction and of yarns arranged perpendicular to the warp yarns in the direction of Frame. The binding obtained between these warp and weft yarns is defined by a weave.
There are three basic classes of armor: canvas, twill and satin.
There are armours derived from the previous three: reps, fluted, crossed, repetitive satin, and so on.
A fabric can be composed of several different armor and in this case we speak of fabric (e.g. the velvet of Genoa).
The Jacquard loom permits the selection of warp threads independently, while the framing looms make a selection of frames and therefore groups of threads.
Depending on the use made of the yarns, it is called weft yarns and yarns (warp yarns). One can also find fancy yarns when great importance is given to the aesthetics of the yarn instead of its regularity. There are also so-called technical threads used in technical applications.
Weaving is accompanied by precise steps, the most important of which are:
The coil: the wires are arranged on the coils;
Warping: preparation of the chain on the loom;
The drawing: the warp threads are threaded into metal rods (the healds) and then into the teeth of the comb;
Once the textile piece has gone down from the industrial loom and up to the computerization stage, the luxury cloths (Elbeuf cloth) intended for clothing are known to re-engage the clusters, That is to say the errors made by the loom when a warp or weft thread breaks or any other incident.
– Knitting: Several methods of knitting have been developed.
The knitting with picked knits, also known as knitting weft is the best known. It allows to obtain knitting jersey, interlock, 1×1 coast, English coast, etc. These stitches are frequently used in underwear, T-shirts, pullovers, socks, etc.
Knitted knitted or warp knitted fabric allows the realization of unpackable articles. The most frequent armors are the charm, the atlas, the satin. These stitches are used in the manufacture of swimwear, lingerie, net curtains.